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Bivalvia
See text Empty shell of the giant clam (Tridacna gigas) Empty shells of the sword razor ( Ensis ensis) BIVALVIA, in previous centuries referred to as the LAMELLIBRANCHIATA and PELECYPODA, is a class of marine and freshwater molluscs that have laterally compressed bodies enclosed by a shell consisting of two hinged parts. BIVALVES as a group have no head and they lack some usual molluscan organs like the radula and the odontophore . They include the clams , oysters , cockles , mussels , scallops , and numerous other families that live in saltwater, as well as a number of families that live in freshwater. The majority are filter feeders . The gills have evolved into ctenidia , specialised organs for feeding and breathing. Most bivalves bury themselves in sediment where they are relatively safe from predation . Others lie on the sea floor or attach themselves to rocks or other hard surfaces
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Class (biology)
In biological classification , CLASS (Latin : classis) is: * a taxonomic rank . Other well-known ranks in descending order of size are life , domain , kingdom , phylum , order , family , genus , and species , with class fitting between phylum and order. As for the other well-known ranks, there is the option of an immediately lower rank, indicated by the prefix sub-: subclass (Latin: subclassis). * a taxonomic unit, a taxon , in that rank. In that case the plural is classes (Latin classes) Example: Dogs are in the class Mammalia . The composition of each class is determined by a taxonomist . Often there is no exact agreement, with different taxonomists taking different positions. There are no hard rules that a taxonomist needs to follow in describing a class, but for well-known animals there is likely to be consensus. In botany, classes are now rarely discussed
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Hinge
A HINGE is a mechanical bearing that connects two solid objects, typically allowing only a limited angle of rotation between them. Two objects connected by an ideal hinge rotate relative to each other about a fixed axis of rotation : all other translations or rotations being prevented, and thus a hinge has one degree of freedom . Hinges may be made of flexible material or of moving components. In biology , many joints function as hinges like the elbow joint. CONTENTS * 1 Door
Door
types * 2 Building access * 3 Large structures * 4 Spacecraft * 5 Hinge
Hinge
terminology * 5.1 Components * 5.2 Characteristics * 6 Other types * 7 See also * 8 References * 9 External links DOOR TYPESThere are many types of door hinges. The main types include: Spring hinge a spring-loaded hinge made to provide assistance in the closing or the opening of the hinge leaves
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Sagittal Plane
A SAGITTAL PLANE is an anatomical plane which divides the body into right and left parts. The plane may be in the centre of the body and split it into two halves (mid-sagittal ) or away from the midline and split it into unequal parts (para-sagittal). Most elements of Irish dancing occur in the sagittal plane. CONTENTS * 1 Variations in terminology * 2 Additional images * 3 See also * 4 References VARIATIONS IN TERMINOLOGYExamples include: * The terms median plane or mid-sagittal plane are sometimes used to describe the sagittal plane running through the midline. This plane cuts the body into halves (assuming bilateral symmetry ), passing through midline structures such as the navel and spine . It is one of the planes which, combined with the Umbilical plane
Umbilical plane
, defines the four quadrants of the human abdomen . * The term parasagittal is used to describe any plane parallel to the sagittal plane
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10th Edition Of Systema Naturae
The 10TH EDITION OF SYSTEMA NATURAE is a book written by Carl Linnaeus and published in two volumes in 1758 and 1759, which marks the starting point of zoological nomenclature . In it, Linnaeus introduced binomial nomenclature for animals , something he had already done for plants in his 1753 publication of Species Plantarum
Species Plantarum
. CONTENTS * 1 Starting point * 2 Revisions * 3 Animals * 3.1 Mammalia * 3.2 Aves * 3.3 Amphibia * 3.4 Pisces * 3.5 Insecta * 3.6 Vermes * 4 Plants * 5 References * 6 External links STARTING POINTBefore 1758, most biological catalogues had used polynomial names for the taxa included, including earlier editions of Systema Naturae. The first work to consistently apply binomial nomenclature across the animal kingdom was the 10th edition of Systema Naturae
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Species
In biology , a SPECIES is the basic unit of classification and a taxonomic rank , as well as a unit of biodiversity , but it has proven difficult to find a satisfactory definition. Scientists and conservationists need a species definition which allows them to work, regardless of the theoretical difficulties. If as Linnaeus
Linnaeus
thought, species were fixed, there would be no problem, but evolutionary processes cause species to change continually, and to grade into one another. A species is often defined as the largest group of organisms in which two individuals can produce fertile offspring , typically by sexual reproduction . While this definition is often adequate, when looked at more closely it is problematic . For example, with hybridisation , in a species complex of hundreds of similar microspecies , or in a ring species , the boundaries between closely related species become unclear
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Carl Linnaeus
CARL LINNAEUS (/lɪˈniːəs, lɪˈneɪəs/ ; 23 May 1707 – 10 January 1778), also known after his ennoblement as CARL VON LINNé (Swedish pronunciation: ( listen )), was a Swedish botanist , physician and zoologist , who formalised the modern system of naming organisms called binomial nomenclature . He is known by the epithet "father of modern taxonomy". Many of his writings were in Latin and his name is rendered in Latin as CAROLUS LINNæUS (after 1761 CAROLUS A LINNé). Linnaeus
Linnaeus
was born in the countryside of Småland , in southern Sweden . He received most of his higher education at Uppsala University and began giving lectures in botany there in 1730. He lived abroad between 1735 and 1738, where he studied and also published a first edition of his Systema Naturae in the Netherlands
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Odontophore
The ODONTOPHORE is part of the feeding mechanism in molluscs . It is the cartilage which underlies and supports the radula , a ribbon of teeth. The radula is found in every class of molluscs except for the bivalves . The feeding apparatus can be extended from the mouth of the animal, and the radular ribbon can slide over the odontophore. By moving the radula and odontophore over a surface, the teeth cut and scoop up food particles and convey them into the mouth, whence they enter the oesophagus. The diagrams here show the feeding apparatus of a gastropod . Note however that this is a generalized diagram, the details of which do not necessarily apply to predatory species of gastropods such as the cone snails , which have a highly specialized feeding mechanism. REFERENCES * ^ Gerlach, J.; Van Bruggen, A.C. (1998). "A first record of a terrestrial mollusc without a radula". Journal of Molluscan Studies. 64 (2): 249–250. doi :10.1093/mollus/64.2.249
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Filter Feeder
FILTER FEEDERS are a sub-group of suspension feeding animals that feed by straining suspended matter and food particles from water, typically by passing the water over a specialized filtering structure. Some animals that use this method of feeding are clams , krill , sponges , baleen whales , and many fish (including some sharks ). Some birds, such as flamingos and certain species of duck , are also filter feeders. Filter feeders can play an important role in clarifying water, and are therefore considered ecosystem engineers . CONTENTS * 1 Fish
Fish
* 2 Crustaceans * 3 Baleen
Baleen
whales * 4 Bivalves * 5 Sponges * 6 Cnidarians * 7 Flamingos * 8 Pterosaurs * 9 Marine reptiles * 10 See also * 11 Notes * 12 References * 13 External links FISH See also: Forage fish Most forage fish are filter feeders
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Predation
In an ecosystem, PREDATION is a biological interaction where a PREDATOR (an organism that is hunting) feeds on its PREY (the organism that is attacked). Predators may or may not kill their prey prior to feeding on it, but the act of predation often results in the death of the prey and the eventual absorption of the prey's tissue through digestion. It could also constitute a chase, stalking, or attack of prey. Thus predation is often, though not always, carnivory . Other categories of consumption are herbivory (eating parts of plants), fungivory (eating parts of fungi), and detritivory (the consumption of dead organic material). All of these are consumer-resource systems . It can often be difficult to separate various types of feeding behaviors . For example, some parasites prey on their host and then lay their eggs on it, for their offspring to feed on it while it continues to live, or on its decaying corpse after it has died
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Family (biology)
In biological classification , FAMILY (Latin : familia, plural familiae) is one of the eight major taxonomic ranks ; it is classified between order and genus . A family may be divided into subfamilies , which are intermediate ranks above the rank of genus . In vernacular usage , a family may be named after one of its common members; for example, walnuts and hickory trees belong to the family Juglandaceae , commonly known as the walnut family. What does or does not belong to a family—or whether a described family should be recognized at all—are proposed and determined by practicing taxonomists. There are no hard rules for describing or recognizing a family, or any taxa. Taxonomists often take different positions about descriptions of taxa, and there may be no broad consensus across the scientific community for some time
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Nekton
NEKTON or NECTON refers to the aggregate of actively swimming aquatic organisms in a body of water. The term was proposed by German biologist Ernst Haeckel
Ernst Haeckel
to differentiate between the active swimmers in a body of water, and the passive organisms that were carried along by the current, the plankton . As a guideline, nektonic organisms have a high Reynolds number (greater than 1000) and planktonic organisms a low one (less than 10). However, some organisms can begin life as plankton and transition to nekton later on in life, sometimes making distinction difficult when attempting to classify certain plankton-to-nekton species as one or the other. For this reason, some biologists choose not to use this term
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Calcium Carbonate
CALCIUM CARBONATE is a chemical compound with the formula Ca C O 3. It is a common substance found in rocks as the minerals calcite and aragonite (most notably as limestone , which contains both of those minerals) and is the main component of pearls and the shells of marine organisms , snails , and eggs. Calcium
Calcium
carbonate is the active ingredient in agricultural lime and is created when calcium ions in hard water react with carbonate ions to create limescale . It is medicinally used as a calcium supplement or as an antacid , but excessive consumption can be hazardous
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Animal Shell
An EXOSKELETON (from Greek έξω, éxō "outer" and σκελετός, skeletos "skeleton" ) is the external skeleton that supports and protects an animal's body, in contrast to the internal skeleton (endoskeleton ) of, for example, a human . In usage, some of the larger kinds of exoskeletons are known as "SHELLS ". Examples of animals with exoskeletons include insects such as grasshoppers and cockroaches , and crustaceans such as crabs and lobsters . The shells of certain sponges and the various groups of shelled molluscs, including those of snails , clams , tusk shells , chitons and nautilus , are also exoskeletons. Some animals, such as the tortoise , have both an endoskeleton and an exoskeleton
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Taxonomy (biology)
TAXONOMY (from Ancient Greek τάξις (taxis ), meaning 'arrangement', and -νομία (-nomia), meaning 'method ') is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics. Organisms are grouped together into taxa (singular: taxon) and these groups are given a taxonomic rank ; groups of a given rank can be aggregated to form a super-group of higher rank, thus creating a taxonomic hierarchy. The principal ranks in modern use are domain , kingdom , phylum (division is sometimes used in botany in place of phylum), class , order , family , genus and species . The Swedish botanist Carl Linnaeus
Carl Linnaeus
is regarded as the father of taxonomy, as he developed a system known as Linnaean taxonomy for categorization of organisms and binomial nomenclature for naming organisms
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