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Baltic Nobility
The BALTIC or BALTIC GERMAN NOBILITY was the privileged social class in the territories of today's Estonia
Estonia
and Latvia
Latvia
. It existed continuously since the Northern Crusades
Northern Crusades
and the medieval foundation of Terra Mariana
Terra Mariana
. Most of the nobility were Baltic Germans
Baltic Germans
, but with the changing political landscape over the centuries, Polish , Swedish and Russian families also became part of the nobility, just as Baltic German families re-settled in e.g. the Swedish and Russian Empires . The nobility of Lithuania is for historical, social and ethnic reasons often separated from the German-dominated nobility of Estonia
Estonia
and Latvia
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Riga
RIGA (/ˈriːɡə/ ; Latvian : Rīga, pronounced ( listen )) is the capital and the largest city of Latvia
Latvia
. With 639,630 inhabitants (2016), Riga
Riga
is the largest city in the Baltic states
Baltic states
and home to one third of Latvia's population. The city lies on the Gulf of Riga , at the mouth of the Daugava . Riga's territory covers 307.17 square kilometres (118.60 square miles ) and lies between one and ten metres (3 feet 3 inches and 32 feet 10 inches) above sea level , on a flat and sandy plain. Riga
Riga
was founded in 1201 and is a former Hanseatic League
Hanseatic League
member. Riga's historical centre is a UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
, noted for its Art Nouveau
Art Nouveau
/Jugendstil architecture and 19th century wooden architecture
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Viipuri
VYBORG (Russian Cyrillic : Выборг , Finnish : Viipuri , Swedish : Viborg , German : Wiborg , Estonian : Viiburi ), a town and the administrative center of Vyborgsky District in Leningrad Oblast , Russia
Russia
, lies on the Karelian Isthmus
Karelian Isthmus
near the head of the Vyborg Bay , 130 km (81 miles) to the northwest of St. Petersburg and 38 km (24 miles) south of Russia\'s border with Finland
Finland
, where the Saimaa Canal enters the Gulf of Finland
Gulf of Finland
. Population: 79,962 (2010 Census ); 79,224 (2002 Census ); 80,924 (1989 Census ). Located in the boundary zone between the East Slavic/Russian and Finnish worlds, the town has changed hands several times in history, most recently in 1944 when the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
captured it from Finland during World War II
World War II

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Magnus, Duke Of Holstein
MAGNUS OF HOLSTEIN (5 September 1540 – 28 March 1583) was a Prince of Denmark and a member of the House of Oldenburg . As a vassal of Ivan IV of Russia , he was the titular King of Livonia from 1570 to 1578. CONTENTS * 1 Early life * 2 King of Livonia * 3 Spouse and issue * 4 Ancestry * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links EARLY LIFEDuke Magnus was born at the Copenhagen Castle in 1540 as the second son of King Christian III of Denmark and Norway and Dorothea of Saxe-Lauenburg . At the age of 17 he was sent to Germany to be educated at various German courts. Following the death of his father in 1559, he returned to Denmark for the coronation of his older brother, King Frederick II of Denmark . The same year, the prince-bishop of Ösel-Wiek and Courland Johannes V von Münchhausen in Old Livonia sold his lands to King Frederick II for 30,000 thalers
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Livonian War
Cession of: * Estonia
Estonia
to Sweden * Livonia, Courland
Courland
and Semigallia to Poland–Lithuania * Ösel to Denmark–Norway BELLIGERENTS
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Mitau
JELGAVA (pronounced ( listen ); German : Mitau; see also other names ) is a city in central Latvia
Latvia
about 41 kilometres (25 miles) southwest of Riga
Riga
with about 63,000 inhabitants. It is the largest town in the region of Zemgale (Semigalia). Jelgava
Jelgava
was the capital of the united Duchy of Courland and Semigallia
Duchy of Courland and Semigallia
(1578-1795) and the administrative center of the Courland Governorate
Courland Governorate
(1795-1918). Jelgava
Jelgava
is situated on a fertile plain rising only 3.5 metres (11.5 feet) above mean sea level on the right bank of the river Lielupe . At high water the plain and sometimes the town as well can be flooded. It is a railway center and is also host to Jelgava Air Base
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Reval
TALLINN (/ˈtɑːlɪn/ or /ˈtælɪn/ , Estonian pronunciation: ; names in other languages ) is the capital and largest city of Estonia
Estonia
. It is situated on the northern coast of the country, on the shore of the Gulf of Finland
Gulf of Finland
, 80 km (50 mi) south of Helsinki
Helsinki
, east of Stockholm
Stockholm
and west of Saint Petersburg in Harju County . From the 13th century until 1918 (and briefly during the Nazi occupation of Estonia
Estonia
from 1941 to 1944), the city was known as REVAL. Tallinn occupies an area of 159.2 km2 (61.5 sq mi) and has a population of 445,480 . Tallinn, first mentioned in 1219, received city rights in 1248, but the earliest human settlements date back 5,000 years
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Governorate Of Estonia
The GOVERNORATE OF EST(H)ONIA (Estonian : Eestimaa kubermang) or DUCHY OF ESTONIA, also known as the GOVERNMENT OF ESTONIA, was a governorate of the Russian Empire
Russian Empire
in what is now northern Estonia
Estonia
. The Governorate was gained by the Russian Empire
Russian Empire
from Sweden during the Great Northern War in 1721. The Russian Tsars held the title Duke of Estonia
Estonia
(Russian : Князь Эстляндский, Knyaz' Estlyandskii), during the Russian era in English sometimes also referred to as Prince of Estonia. Until the late 19th century the governorate was administered independently by the local Baltic German
Baltic German
nobility through a feudal Regional Council (German: Landtag)
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Social Class
A SOCIAL CLASS (or, simply, CLASS), as in CLASS SOCIETY, is a set of subjectively defined concepts in the social sciences and political theory centered on models of social stratification in which people are grouped into a set of hierarchical social categories, the most common being the upper , middle , and lower classes . Class is a subject of analysis for sociologists , political scientists , anthropologists , and social historians . However, there is not a consensus on a definition of "class", and the term has a wide range of sometimes conflicting meanings. In common parlance, the term "social class" is usually synonymous with "socio-economic class", defined as "people having the same social, economic, cultural, political or educational status", e.g., "the working class "; "an emerging professional class"
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Land Reform
LAND REFORM (also agrarian reform , though that can have a broader meaning) involves the changing of laws, regulations or customs regarding land ownership. Land reform
Land reform
may consist of a government-initiated or government-backed property redistribution , generally of agricultural land. Land reform
Land reform
can, therefore, refer to transfer of ownership from the more powerful to the less powerful, such as from a relatively small number of wealthy (or noble) owners with extensive land holdings (e.g., plantations, large ranches, or agribusiness plots) to individual ownership by those who work the land. Such transfers of ownership may be with or without compensation; compensation may vary from token amounts to the full value of the land
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List Of Palaces And Manor Houses In Latvia
A PALACE is a grand residence, especially a royal residence, or the home of a head of state or some other high-ranking dignitary , such as a bishop or archbishop . The word is derived from the Latin name Palātium, for Palatine Hill in Rome which housed the Imperial residences. In many parts of Europe , the term is also applied to ambitious private mansions of the aristocracy . Many historic palaces are now put to other uses such as parliaments , museums , hotels , or office buildings . The word is also sometimes used to describe a lavishly ornate building used for public entertainment or exhibitions
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Dukes Of Courland
DEMONYM: Courlander or Couronian PART OF A SERIES ON THE HISTORY OF LATVIA Ancient Latvia * Kunda culture * Narva culture * Corded Ware culture * Amber Road / Aesti * Baltic Finns (Livonians , Vends ) * Balts * Latgalians * Curonians * Selonians * Semigallians Middle Ages * Principality of Jersika * Principality of Koknese * Tālava * Livonian Crusade * Livonian Brothers of the Sword * Livonian Order * Archbishopric of Riga * Bishopric of Courland * Terra Mariana * Baltic Germans Early modern period * Livonian War * Kingdom of Livonia * Duchy of Livonia * Inflanty Voivodeship * Swedish Livonia * Polish–Swedish Wars (1600–1629) * Second Northern War * Great Northern War * Duchy of Courland and Semigallia * Couronian colonization National Awakening * Governorate of Livonia * Courland Governorate * Vitebsk Governorate * The Firs
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Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Beck
SCHLESWIG-HOLSTEIN-SONDERBURG-BECK (SCHLESWIG-HOLSTEIN-BECK for short) was a line of the Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg
Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg
branch of the House of Oldenburg
House of Oldenburg
. It consisted of August Philipp, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Beck
Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Beck
(1612-1675) and his male-line descendants. Schleswig-Holstein-Glücksburg , to which several present-day royal houses belong, is a branch of Schleswig-Holstein-Beck. The members of the line were titular dukes of Schleswig
Schleswig
and Holstein , and they were originally not ruling. The line is named after Beck, a manor in Ulenburg, Bishopric of Minden
Bishopric of Minden
(today Löhne , North Rhine Westphalia). August Philipp bought this manor from the Count of Oldenburg , and he made it his residence
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Freiherr
FREIHERR ( ; male, abbreviated as Frhr.), FREIFRAU ( ; his wife, abbreviated as Frfr., literally "free lord" or "free lady") and FREIIN ( ; his unmarried daughters and maiden aunts) are designations used as titles of nobility in the German-speaking areas of the Holy Roman Empire , and in its various successor states, including Austria , Prussia
Prussia
, Bavaria
Bavaria
, Liechtenstein
Liechtenstein
, Luxembourg
Luxembourg
, etc. Traditionally it denotes the third-lowest titled rank within the nobility , above Ritter
Ritter
(knight ) and Edler (nobility without a specific title) and below Graf
Graf
(count, earl ) and Herzog (duke). The title superseded the earlier medieval form, EDELHERR. It corresponds to baron in rank
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Henrik Magnus Von Buddenbrock
HENRIK MAGNUS VON BUDDENBROCK (July 22, 1685 – between July 16 and July 27, 1743) was a Swedish baron and Lieutenant General . He and Carl Emil Lewenhaupt were executed for negligence in the Russo-Swedish War , in the aftermath of the defeat at Villmanstrand . CONTENTS * 1 Biography * 2 Children * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 Ancestors BIOGRAPHYHe was born on July 22, 1685 in Swedish Livonia . He was the son of the landed gentleman and Swedish Empire army officer Henrik Gotthard von Buddenbrock (1648–1727) and Charlotta Cronman . He enlisted as an officer of the Swedish army, becoming a captain of the Life Guards in 1711, Major of grenadiers in 1715, Major General in 1721. He was elevated to friherre (matricle number 206) in 1731 and promoted to Lieutenant General of the infantry in 1739. As such, he was in 1741 commander of the troops in Finland , under General Charles Emil Lewenhaupt , at the onset of the Russo-Swedish War
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Bishop Of Riga
The ARCHBISHOPRIC OF RIGA ( Latin
Latin
: Archiepiscopatus Rigensis, Low German : Erzbisdom Riga) was an archbishopric in Medieval Livonia
Livonia
, a subject to the Holy See
Holy See
. It was established in 1186 as the bishopric of Livonia
Livonia
at Üxküll , then after moving to Riga
Riga
it became the bishopric of Riga
Riga
in 1202 and was elevated to an archbishopric in 1255
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