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Baltic Nobility
The Baltic or Baltic German
Baltic German
nobility was the privileged social class in the territories of today's Estonia
Estonia
and Latvia. It existed continuously since the Northern Crusades
Northern Crusades
and the medieval foundation of Terra Mariana. Most of the nobility were Baltic Germans, but with the changing political landscape over the centuries, Polish, Swedish and Russian families also became part of the nobility, just as Baltic German families re-settled in e.g. the Swedish and Russian Empires.[1] The nobility of Lithuania is for historical, social and ethnic reasons often separated from the German-dominated nobility of Estonia
Estonia
and Latvia
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Social Class
A social class is a set of subjectively defined concepts in the social sciences and political theory centered on models of social stratification in which people are grouped into a set of hierarchical social categories,[1] the most common being the upper, middle and lower classes. "Class" is a subject of analysis for sociologists, political scientists, anthropologists and social historians. However, there is not a consensus on a definition of "class" and the term has a wide range of sometimes conflicting meanings
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Livonian War
Cession of: Estonia
Estonia
to Sweden Livonia, Courland
Courland
and Semigallia to Poland–Lithuania Ösel to Denmark–NorwayBelligerents Livonian Confederation Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth (before 1569 the Polish–Lithuanian union) Denmark–Norway Kingdom of Sweden Zaporozhian Cossacks Principalit
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List Of Palaces And Manor Houses In Estonia
This is the List of palaces and manor houses in Estonia. This list does not include castles, which are listed in a separate article. As there are at least 400 manor houses in Estonia, this list is incomplete.[1]Contents1 Palaces and manor houses in Estonia 2 See also 3 Additional information3.1 References 3.2 Sources4 External linksPalaces and manor houses in Estonia[edit]Name Name in German Location County Established Picture NotesAa Manor Haakhof Lüganuse Parish Ida-Viru County 1426Now an assisted living facility for the elderlyÄäsmäe Manor Essemäggi Saue Parish Harju County 1574King John III of Sweden presented the estate as a gift to his secretary Johann Berends in 1574. Current building dates from the 1770s.Aaspere Manor Kattentack Haljala Parish Lääne-Viru County 1583Main building erected at the end of the 18th century. Belonged to the von Dellingshausen family
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List Of Palaces And Manor Houses In Latvia
This is a list of palaces and manor houses in Latvia built after the 16th century. Palaces and manors which are now part of the Zemgale region were then part of the Selonia region, and therefore are listed as such. This list does not include castles, which are listed in a separate article
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Baltic Knighthoods
Baltic Noble Corporations of Courland, Livonia, Estonia, and Oesel (Ösel) were medieval fiefdoms formed by German nobles in the 13th century under vassalage to the Teutonic Knights and Denmark in modern Latvia and Estonia. The territories continued to have semi-autonomous status from 16th to early 20th century under Swedish and Russian rule. The four knighthoods are united in the "Verband der Baltischen Ritterschaften." [1]Contents1 History 2 Estonian Knighthood 3 Livonian Knighthood 4 Oesel Knighthood 5 Courland Knighthood 6 See also 7 References 8 NotesHistory[edit] The Teutonic Knights entered the area of what is now Latvia and Estonia in the beginning of the 13th century in order to Christianize the region. After the conquest much of the Order's land was divided among the German noble families originally from Westphalia and regions along the Rhine river. The towns also saw the development of a German mercantile class
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Estonian Knighthood
The Estonian Knighthood (German: Estländische Ritterschaft) was a fiefdom that operated in the northern part of modern Estonia. It was formed in 1584 by the Baltic German nobles and disbanded in 1920. Just like other Baltic knighthoods, the Estonian also had semi-autonomous privileged status in the Russian Empire. The earliest written reference of the Estonian Knighthood dates from 1252. Its origins date back to the time of Danish rule, when the northern Estonian provinces of Revala, Vironia and Harria where allied together. The process of the development of the corporation into a political entity was completed by the end of the Rule of the Teutonic Order in 1561, resulting in the control of the region and its peasant population, although excluding the cities. Estonian Knighthood managed to maintain its dominant role throughout the period of Swedish and Russian rule
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Reval
Tallinn
Tallinn
(/ˈtɑːlɪn/[4][5] or /ˈtælɪn/,[6] Estonian pronunciation: [ˈtɑlʲˑinˑ]; names in other languages) is the capital and largest city of Estonia. It is situated on the northern coast of the country, on the shore of the Gulf of Finland, 80 km (50 mi) south of Helsinki, east of Stockholm, north of Riga
Riga
and west of Saint Petersburg
Saint Petersburg
in Harju County
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Mitau
Jelgava (pronounced [jælɡava] ( listen); German: Mitau; see also other names) is a city in central Latvia about 41 kilometres (25 miles) southwest of Riga with about 63,000 inhabitants. It is the largest town in the region of Zemgale (Semigalia). Jelgava was the capital of the united Duchy of Courland and Semigallia (1578-1795) and the administrative center of the Courland Governorate (1795-1918). Jelgava is situated on a fertile plain rising only 3.5 metres (11.5 feet) above mean sea level on the right bank of the river Lielupe. At high water the plain and sometimes the town as well can be flooded. It is a railway center and is also host to Jelgava Air Base
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Livonian Knighthood
The Livonian Knighthood (German: Livländische Ritterschaft, Estonian: Liivimaa rüütelkond, Latvian: Livonijas bruņniecība) was a fiefdom that existed in Livonia (now Southern Estonia and Northern Latvia). It was formed in 1561 by Baltic German nobles and disbanded in 1917 in Estonia, and in 1920 in Latvia
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Riga
Riga
Riga
(/ˈriːɡə/; Latvian: Rīga [ˈriːɡa] ( listen)) is the capital and largest city of Latvia. With 641,481 inhabitants (2016),[3] it is also the largest city in the three Baltic states, home to one third of Latvia's population and one tenth of the three Baltic states' combined population.[6] The city lies on the Gulf of Riga, at the mouth of the Daugava
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Viipuri
Vyborg
Vyborg
(Russian: Выборг, IPA: [ˈvɨbərk];[10] Finnish: Viipuri, [ˈʋiːpuri];[11] Swedish: Viborg [ˈviːbɔrj]; German: Wiborg [ˈviːbɔɐ̯k]; Estonian: Viiburi [ˈʋiːpuri]) is a town in, and the administrative center of, Vyborgsky District in Leningrad Oblast, Russia
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Magnus, Duke Of Holstein
Magnus of Denmark or Magnus of Holstein (5 September [O.S. 26 August] 1540 – 28 March [O.S. 18 March] 1583) was a Prince of Denmark, [1] Duke of Holstein, and a member of the House of Oldenburg. As a vassal of Tsar Ivan IV of Russia, he was the titular King of Livonia from 1570 to 1578.[2]Contents1 Early life 2 King of Livonia 3 Spouse and issue 4 Ancestry 5 See also 6 References 7 External linksEarly life[edit] Duke Magnus was born at the Copenhagen Castle in 1540 as the second son of King Christian III of Denmark and Norway and Dorothea of Saxe-Lauenburg. At the age of 17 he was sent to Germany to be educated at various German courts. Following the death of his father in 1559, he returned to Denmark for the coronation of his older brother, King Frederick II of Denmark. The same year, the prince-bishop of Ösel-Wiek and Courland Johannes V von Münchhausen in Old Livonia sold his lands to King Frederick II for 30,000 thalers
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Dukes Of Courland
Demonym: Courlander or CouronianPart of a series on theHistory of LatviaAncient LatviaKunda culture Narva culture Corded Ware culture Amber Road / Aesti Baltic Finns (Livonians, Vends) Balts Latgalians Curonians Selonians SemigalliansMiddle AgesPrincipality of Jersika Principality of Koknese Tālava Livonian Crusade Livonian Brothers of the Sword Livonian Order Archbishopric of Riga Bishopric of Courland Terra Mariana Baltic GermansEarly modern periodLivonian War Kingdom of Livonia Duchy of Livonia Inflanty Voivodeship Swedish Livonia Polish–Swedish Wars (1600–1629) Second Northern War Great Northern War Duchy of Courland and Semigallia Couronian colonizationNational AwakeningGovernorate of Livonia Courland Governorate Vitebsk Governorate The First Latvian National Awakening New CurrentModern LatviaLatvian Riflemen German occupation United Baltic Duchy Latvian Socialist Soviet Republic War of Indepe
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Governorate Of Livonia
The Governorate of Livonia[1] (Russian: Лифляндская губерния, Liflyandskaya guberniya; German: Gouvernement Livland, Livländisches Gouvernement; Latvian: Vidzemes guberņa, after the Latvian inhabited Vidzeme
Vidzeme
region) was one of the Baltic governorates of the Russian Empire, now divided between the Republic of Latvia
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Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Beck
Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Beck (Schleswig-Holstein-Beck for short) was a line of the Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg branch of the House of Oldenburg. It consisted of August Philipp, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Beck (1612-1675) and his male-line descendants. Schleswig-Holstein-Glücksburg, to which several present-day royal houses belong, is a branch of Schleswig-Holstein-Beck. The members of the line were titular dukes of Schleswig and Holstein, and they were originally not ruling. The line is named after Beck, a manor in Ulenburg, Bishopric of Minden (today Löhne, North Rhine Westphalia)
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