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Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System
The ANATOMICAL THERAPEUTIC CHEMICAL (ATC) CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM is used for the classification of active ingredients of drugs according to the organ or system on which they act and their therapeutic , pharmacological and chemical properties. It is controlled by the World Health Organization Collaborating Centre for Drug
Drug
Statistics Methodology (WHOCC), and was first published in 1976. This pharmaceutical coding system divides drugs into different groups according to the organ or system on which they act or their therapeutic and chemical characteristics . Each bottom-level ATC code stands for a pharmaceutically used substance, or a combination of substances, in a single indication (or use). This means that one drug can have more than one code: acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin), for example, has A01AD05 (WHO) as a drug for local oral treatment, B01AC06 (WHO) as a platelet inhibitor , and N02BA01 (WHO) as an analgesic and antipyretic
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Blood
BLOOD is a body fluid in humans and other animals that delivers necessary substances such as nutrients and oxygen to the cells and transports metabolic waste products away from those same cells. In vertebrates , it is composed of blood cells suspended in blood plasma . Plasma, which constitutes 55% of blood fluid, is mostly water (92% by volume), and contains dissipated proteins , glucose , mineral ions , hormones , carbon dioxide (plasma being the main medium for excretory product transportation), and blood cells themselves. Albumin is the main protein in plasma, and it functions to regulate the colloidal osmotic pressure of blood. The blood cells are mainly red blood cells (also called RBCs or erythrocytes), white blood cells (also called WBCs or leukocytes) and platelets (also called thrombocytes). The most abundant cells in vertebrate blood are red blood cells
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Haematopoiesis
HAEMATOPOIESIS (from Greek αἷμα, "blood" and ποιεῖν "to make"; also HEMATOPOIESIS in American English; sometimes also HAEMOPOIESIS or HEMOPOIESIS) is the formation of blood cellular components. All cellular blood components are derived from haematopoietic stem cells . In a healthy adult person, approximately 1011–1012 new blood cells are produced daily in order to maintain steady state levels in the peripheral circulation
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Metabolism
METABOLISM (from Greek : μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life -sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of living organisms . The three main purposes of metabolism are the conversion of food/fuel to energy to run cellular processes, the conversion of food/fuel to building blocks for proteins , lipids , nucleic acids , and some carbohydrates , and the elimination of nitrogenous wastes . These enzyme -catalyzed reactions allow organisms to grow and reproduce, maintain their structures, and respond to their environments. The word metabolism can also refer to the sum of all chemical reactions that occur in living organisms, including digestion and the transport of substances into and between different cells, in which case the set of reactions within the cells is called INTERMEDIARY METABOLISM or INTERMEDIATE METABOLISM
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Alimentary Tract
The GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT (DIGESTIVE TRACT, DIGESTIONAL TRACT, GI TRACT, GIT, GUT, or ALIMENTARY CANAL) is an organ system within humans and other animals which takes in food, digests it to extract and absorb energy and nutrients, and expels the remaining waste as feces . The mouth , oesophagus , stomach, and intestines are part of the gastrointestinal tract. Gastrointestinal is an adjective meaning of or pertaining to the stomach and intestines . A tract is a collection of related anatomic structures or a series of connected body organs. All bilaterians have a gastrointestinal tract, also called a gut or an alimentary canal. This is a tube that transfers food to the organs of digestion . In large bilaterians, the gastrointestinal tract generally also has an exit, the anus , by which the animal disposes of feces (solid wastes). Some small bilaterians have no anus and dispose of solid wastes by other means (for example, through the mouth)
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Insecticide
An INSECTICIDE is a substance used to kill insects . They include ovicides and larvicides used against insect eggs and larvae , respectively. Insecticides are used in agriculture , medicine , industry and by consumers. Insecticides are claimed to be a major factor behind the increase in agricultural 20th century's productivity. Nearly all insecticides have the potential to significantly alter ecosystems; many are toxic to humans; some concentrate along the food chain. Insecticides can be classified in two major groups: systemic insecticides, which have residual or long term activity; and contact insecticides, which have no residual activity. Furthermore, one can distinguish three types of insecticide. 1. Natural insecticides, such as nicotine , pyrethrum and neem extracts, made by plants as defenses against insects. 2. Inorganic insecticides, which are metals. 3. Organic insecticides, which are organic chemical compounds, mostly working by contact
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Cardiovascular System
The CIRCULATORY SYSTEM, also called the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM or the VASCULAR SYSTEM, is an organ system that permits blood to circulate and transport nutrients (such as amino acids and electrolytes ), oxygen , carbon dioxide , hormones , and blood cells to and from the cells in the body to provide nourishment and help in fighting diseases , stabilize temperature and pH , and maintain homeostasis . The study of the blood flow is called hemodynamics . The study of the properties of the blood flow is called hemorheology . The circulatory system is often seen to comprise two separate systems: the cardiovascular system, which distributes blood, and the lymphatic system , which circulates lymph . The passage of lymph for example takes much longer than that of blood
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Nervous System
The NERVOUS SYSTEM is the part of an animal that coordinates its actions by transmitting signals to and from different parts of its body. The nervous system detects environmental changes that impact the body, then works in tandem with the endocrine system to respond to such events. Nervous tissue first arose in wormlike organisms about 550 to 600 million years ago. In vertebrates it consists of two main parts, the central nervous system (CNS) and the peripheral nervous system (PNS). The CNS consists of the brain and spinal cord . The PNS consists mainly of nerves , which are enclosed bundles of the long fibers or axons , that connect the CNS to every other part of the body. Nerves that transmit signals from the brain are called motor or efferent nerves, while those nerves that transmit information from the body to the CNS are called sensory or afferent. Spinal nerves serve both functions and are called mixed nerves
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Antiinfective
INFECTION is the invasion of an organism's body tissues by disease -causing agents, their multiplication, and the reaction of host tissues to these organisms and the toxins they produce. INFECTIOUS DISEASE, also known as TRANSMISSIBLE DISEASE or COMMUNICABLE DISEASE, is illness resulting from an infection. Infections are caused by infectious agents including viruses , viroids , prions , bacteria , nematodes such as parasitic roundworms and pinworms , arthropods such as ticks , mites , fleas , and lice , fungi such as ringworm , and other macroparasites such as tapeworms and other helminths . Hosts can fight infections using their immune system . Mammalian hosts react to infections with an innate response, often involving inflammation , followed by an adaptive response
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Immunomodulator
IMMUNOTHERAPY is the "treatment of disease by inducing, enhancing, or suppressing an immune response". Immunotherapies designed to elicit or amplify an immune response are classified as ACTIVATION IMMUNOTHERAPIES, while immunotherapies that reduce or suppress are classified as SUPPRESSION IMMUNOTHERAPIES . In recent years, immunotherapy has become of great interest to researchers, clinicians and pharmaceutical companies , particularly in its promise to treat various forms of cancer . With thousands of patents filed annually on the subject, it is estimated that there are thousands of immunotherapy licensing opportunities across technology transfer offices that are in need of development and commercialization partners. Immunomodulatory regimens often have fewer side effects than existing drugs, including less potential for creating resistance when treating microbial disease. Cell-based immunotherapies are effective for some cancers
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Hormone
A HORMONE (from the Greek participle “ὁρμῶν”) is any member of a class of signaling molecules produced by glands in multicellular organisms that are transported by the circulatory system to target distant organs to regulate physiology and behaviour . Hormones have diverse chemical structures, mainly of 3 classes: eicosanoids , steroids , and amino acid /protein derivatives (amines , peptides , and proteins ). The glands that secrete hormones comprise the endocrine signaling system . The term hormone is sometimes extended to include chemicals produced by cells that affect the same cell (autocrine or intracrine signalling ) or nearby cells (paracrine signalling ). Hormones are used to communicate between organs and tissues for physiological regulation and behavioral activities, such as digestion, metabolism , respiration , tissue function, sensory perception , sleep , excretion , lactation , stress , growth and development , movement , reproduction , and mood
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Musculo-skeletal System
The HUMAN MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM (also known as the LOCOMOTOR SYSTEM, and previously the ACTIVITY SYSTEM ) is an organ system that gives humans the ability to move using their muscular and skeletal systems . The musculoskeletal system provides form, support, stability, and movement to the body. It is made up of the bones of the skeleton , muscles , cartilage , tendons , ligaments , joints , and other connective tissue that supports and binds tissues and organs together. The musculoskeletal system's primary functions include supporting the body, allowing motion, and protecting vital organs. The skeletal portion of the system serves as the main storage system for calcium and phosphorus and contains critical components of the hematopoietic system . This system describes how bones are connected to other bones and muscle fibers via connective tissue such as tendons and ligaments . The bones provide stability to the body
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Genito-urinary System
The GENITOURINARY SYSTEM or UROGENITAL SYSTEM is the organ system of the reproductive organs and the urinary system . These are grouped together because of their proximity to each other, their common embryological origin and the use of common pathways, like the male urethra . Also, because of their proximity, the systems are sometimes imaged together. The term "apparatus urogenitalis" is used in Nomina Anatomica (under Splanchnologia ), but not in Terminologia Anatomica . CONTENTS * 1 Development * 2 Disorders * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links DEVELOPMENT Main article: Development of the urinary and reproductive organs The urinary and reproductive organs are developed from the intermediate mesoderm . The permanent organs of the adult are preceded by a set of structures that are purely embryonic, and that, with the exception of the ducts, disappear almost entirely before the end of fetal life
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Insect Repellent
An INSECT REPELLENT (also commonly called "BUG SPRAY") is a substance applied to skin, clothing, or other surfaces which discourages insects (and arthropods in general) from landing or climbing on that surface. Insect
Insect
repellents help prevent and control the outbreak of insect-borne (and other arthropod-bourne) diseases such as malaria , Lyme disease , dengue fever , bubonic plague , and West Nile fever . Pest animals commonly serving as vectors for disease include insects such as flea , fly , and mosquito ; and the arachnid tick . Some insect repellents are insecticides (bug killers), but most simply discourage insects and send them flying or crawling away. Almost any might kill at a massive dose without reprieve, but classification as an insecticide implies death even at lower doses
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Antipyretic
ANTIPYRETICS (/ænti.paɪˈrɛ.tɪks/ , from anti- 'against' and pyretic 'feverish') are substances that reduce fever . Antipyretics cause the hypothalamus to override a prostaglandin -induced increase in temperature . The body then works to lower the temperature, which results in a reduction in fever. Most antipyretic medications have other purposes. The most common antipyretics in the United States
United States
are ibuprofen and aspirin , which are nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) used primarily as analgesics (pain relievers), but which also have antipyretic properties; and acetaminophen (paracetamol), an analgesic with weak anti-inflammatory properties. There is some debate over the appropriate use of such medications, as fever is part of the body's immune response to infection
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Medicine
MEDICINE is the science and practice of the diagnosis , treatment , and prevention of disease . Medicine
Medicine
encompasses a variety of health care practices evolved to maintain and restore health by the prevention and treatment of illness . Contemporary medicine applies biomedical sciences , biomedical research , genetics , and medical technology to diagnose , treat, and prevent injury and disease, typically through pharmaceuticals or surgery , but also through therapies as diverse as psychotherapy , external splints and traction , medical devices , biologics , and ionizing radiation , amongst others. Medicine
Medicine
has existed for thousands of years, during most of which it was an art (an area of skill and knowledge) frequently having connections to the religious and philosophical beliefs of local culture
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