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Anarchism
ANARCHISM is a political philosophy that advocates self-governed societies based on voluntary institutions. These are often described as stateless societies , although several authors have defined them more specifically as institutions based on non-hierarchical free associations . Anarchism
Anarchism
holds the state to be undesirable, unnecessary, and harmful. While anti-statism is central, anarchism specifically entails opposing authority or hierarchical organisation in the conduct of all human relations, including, but not limited to, the state system. Anarchism
Anarchism
is usually considered an extreme left-wing ideology, and much of anarchist economics and anarchist legal philosophy reflects anti-authoritarian interpretations of communism , collectivism , syndicalism , mutualism , or participatory economics
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Anarchist (comics)
AARDWOLF (CHON LI) is a mutant in the Marvel Universe
Marvel Universe
. The character, created by Fabian Nicieza
Fabian Nicieza
, Ken Lashley and Fred Hayes, first appeared in Night Thrasher #3 (October 1993). Within the context of the stories, Aardwolf establishes himself as a crime lord on the island of Madripoor . He tricked Night Thrasher into helping him defend his empire by defeating Midnight\'s Fire . ABOMINABLE SNOWMANABOMINABLE SNOWMAN is the name of two or three characters in the Marvel Comics
Marvel Comics
Universe based on the folklore character . CARL HANSONThe Carl Hanson version of the Abominable Snowman first appeared in Tales to Astonish #13 and was created by Jack Kirby and an uncredited Steve Ditko
Steve Ditko
. In order to capture the Abominable Snowman and make money from its capture, Hanson steals a cursed photograph
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Conscientious Objector
Military service
Military service
National service Conscription crisis Conscientious objector Alternative civilian service CONSCRIPTION BY COUNTRY * v * t * e A CONSCIENTIOUS OBJECTOR is an "individual who has claimed the right to refuse to perform military service " on the grounds of freedom of thought, conscience, or religion. In some countries, conscientious objectors are assigned to an alternative civilian service as a substitute for conscription or military service. Some conscientious objectors consider themselves pacifist , non-interventionist , non-resistant , non-aggressionist , or antimilitarist
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Antimilitarism
ANTIMILITARISM is a doctrine that opposes war, relying heavily on a critical theory of imperialism and was an explicit goal of the First and Second International . Whereas pacifism is the doctrine that disputes (especially between countries) should be settled without recourse to violence, Paul B. Miller defines anti-militarism as "ideology and activities...aimed at reducing the civil power of the military and ultimately, preventing international war". Cynthia Cockburn defines an anti-militarist movement as one opposed to "military rule , high military expenditure or the imposition of foreign bases in their country". Martin Ceadel points out that anti-militarism is sometimes equated with pacificism —general opposition to war or violence, except in cases where force is deemed absolutely necessary to advance the cause of peace
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Anationalism
ANATIONALISM ( Esperanto
Esperanto
: sennaciismo) is a term originating from the community of Esperanto
Esperanto
speakers. It denotes a range of cosmopolitan political concepts that combine some or all of the following tendencies and ideas: * radical antinationalism , * universalism , * "one-world-ism", * acceptance of the historic trend toward linguistic homogenization on a world scale, and in some cases even a striving to accelerate that trend, * the necessity of political education and organization of the world proletariat in accordance with those ideas, and * the utility of Esperanto
Esperanto
as an instrument of such political education.Although conceived within the World Anational Association (SAT, Sennacieca Asocio Tutmonda ) and promoted by its founder Eugène Lanti , anationalism is not espoused by that organization as its official ideology
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Anarchists (other)
ANARCHISTS are those who consider the state to be unnecessary, harmful, or otherwise undesirable, and favour instead a stateless society
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Affinity Group
An AFFINITY GROUP is a group formed around a shared interest or common goal, to which individuals formally or informally belong. Affinity groups are generally precluded from being under the aegis of any governmental agency, and their purposes must be primarily non-commercial. Examples of affinity groups include private social clubs , fraternities , writing or reading circles , hobby clubs, and groups engaged in political activism. Some affinity groups are organized in a non-hierarchical manner, often using consensus decision making , and are frequently made up of trusted friends . They provide a method of organization that is flexible and decentralized. Other affinity groups may have a hierarchy to provide management of the group's long-term interests, or if the group is large enough to require the delegation of responsibilities to other members or staff
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Counter-economics
COUNTER-ECONOMICS is a term originally used by Samuel Edward Konkin III and J. Neil Schulman , libertarian activists and theorists. Konkin defined it as "the study or practice of all peaceful human action which is forbidden by the State." The term is short for "counter-establishment economics" and may also be referred to as counter-politics. Counter-economics was integrated by Schulman into Konkin's doctrine of agorism . CONTENTS * 1 Origin * 2 Relationship with agorism * 3 Strategy * 3.1 Vertical/Introverted * 3.2 Horizontal/Extroverted * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links ORIGINThe first presentation of the theory of counter-economics was made by Samuel Edward Konkin III at a conference organized by J. Neil Schulman in 1974 held in Cheshire, Massachusetts
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Class Conflict
CLASS CONFLICT, frequently referred to as CLASS WARFARE or CLASS STRUGGLE, is the tension or antagonism which exists in society due to competing socioeconomic interests and desires between people of different classes . The view that the class struggle provides the lever for radical social change for the majority is central to the work of Karl Marx
Karl Marx
and the anarchist Mikhail Bakunin . Class conflict
Class conflict
can take many different forms: direct violence, such as wars fought for resources and cheap labor; indirect violence, such as deaths from poverty, starvation, illness or unsafe working conditions; coercion, such as the threat of losing a job or the pulling of an important investment; or ideologically, such as with books and articles
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Consensus Democracy
CONSENSUS DEMOCRACY is the application of consensus decision-making to the process of legislation in a democracy . It is characterized by a decision-making structure which involves and takes into account as broad a range of opinions as possible, as opposed to systems where minority opinions can potentially be ignored by vote-winning majorities. Consensus democracy also features increased citizen participation both in determining the political agenda and in the decision-making process itself. Some have pointed to developments in information and communication technology as potential facilitators of such systems, for example the usage of DemocracyOS being used in Buenos Aires
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Direct Democracy
DIRECT DEMOCRACY (also known as PURE DEMOCRACY) is a form of democracy in which people decide (e.g. vote on, form consensus on) policy initiatives directly. This differs from the majority of modern democracies, which are representative democracies
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Dual Power
A DIARCHY (from Greek δι-, di-, "double", and -αρχία, -arkhía, "ruled") or DUUMVIRATE (from Latin
Latin
duumvirātus, "the office of the two men") is a form of government characterized by CORULE, with two people ruling a polity together either lawfully or by collusion and force . The leaders of such a system are usually known as CORULERS. Historically, 'diarchy' particularly referred to the system of shared rule in British India
British India
established by the Government of India Acts of 1919 and 1935 which devolved some powers to local councils which had included native Indian representation since 1892 . 'Duumvirate' principally referred to the offices of the various duumvirs established by the Roman Republic
Roman Republic
. Both, along with less common synonyms such as BIARCHY and TANDEMOCRACY, are now used more generally to refer to any system of joint rule or office
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Deep Ecology
DEEP ECOLOGY is an ecological and environmental philosophy promoting the inherent worth of non-human living beings regardless of their instrumental utility to human needs, plus a radical restructuring of modern human societies in accordance with such ideas. Deep ecology supports the views that the natural world is a harmony of homeostasis due to the complex inter-relationships in which the life of organisms is actively regulated, partially by the existence of other organisms within the biosphere , in order to constantly be conducive to life. These views are scientifically encouraged by living systems theory and the Gaia hypothesis . Human
Human
interference with or destruction of the natural world poses a threat therefore not only to humans but to all organisms of our biosphere
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Direct Action
DIRECT ACTION occurs when a group takes an action which is intended to reveal an existing problem, highlight an alternative, or demonstrate a possible solution to a social issue. This can include nonviolent and less often violent activities which target persons, groups, or property deemed offensive to the direct action participants. Examples of NONVIOLENT DIRECT ACTION (also known as nonviolence , nonviolent resistance , or civil resistance ) can include sit-ins , strikes , workplace occupations , blockades , or hacktivism , while VIOLENT DIRECT ACTION may include political violence or assaults . Tactics such as sabotage and property destruction may be considered violent if people are hurt in the action. By contrast, electoral politics , diplomacy , negotiation , and arbitration are not usually described as direct action, as they are politically mediated
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Especifismo
ESPECIFISMO (Portuguese: , specifism) is one of the two main forms of anarchist activism championed by FARJ (Federação Anarquista do Rio de Janeiro ) and other South American anarchist organizations, the other being social insertion . Especifismo
Especifismo
emerged as a result of anarchist experiences in South America
South America
over the last half of the 20th century starting with the Federación Anarquista Uruguaya (FAU), which was founded in 1956 by anarchists who saw the need for an organization which was specifically anarchist. Especifismo
Especifismo
has been summarized as: * The need for specifically anarchist organization built around a unity of ideas and praxis . * The use of the specifically anarchist organization to theorize and develop strategic political and organizing work. * Active involvement in and building of autonomous and popular social movements via social insertion
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