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An American In Paris
AN AMERICAN IN PARIS is a jazz -influenced orchestral piece by the American composer George Gershwin , written in 1928. Inspired by the time Gershwin had spent in Paris , it evokes the sights and energy of the French capital in the 1920s and is one of his best-known compositions. Gershwin composed An American in Paris on commission from the conductor Walter Damrosch . He scored the piece for the standard instruments of the symphony orchestra plus celesta , saxophones , and automobile horns. He brought back some Parisian taxi horns for the New York premiere of the composition, which took place on December 13, 1928, in Carnegie Hall , with Damrosch conducting the New York Philharmonic . Gershwin completed the orchestration on November 18, less than four weeks before the work's premiere
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Clarinet
The CLARINET is a musical-instrument family belonging to the group known as the woodwind instruments . It has a single-reed mouthpiece, a straight cylindrical tube with an almost cylindrical bore , and a flared bell. A person who plays a clarinet is called a clarinetist (sometimes spelled clarinettist). The word clarinet may have entered the English language via the French clarinette (the feminine diminutive of Old French
Old French
clarin or clarion), or from Provençal clarin, "oboe". It would seem however that its real roots are to be found amongst some of the various names for trumpets used around the renaissance and baroque eras. Clarion, clarin and the Italian clarino are all derived from the medieval term claro which referred to an early form of trumpet. This is probably the origin of the Italian clarinetto, itself a diminutive of clarino, and consequently of the European equivalents such as clarinette in French or the German Klarinette
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Soprano Clarinet
Wind Woodwind Single-reed PLAYING RANGE Written range: RELATED INSTRUMENTS * Piccolo clarinet * Basset clarinet
Basset clarinet
* Alto clarinet
Alto clarinet
* Bass clarinet
Bass clarinet
MUSICIANS * Category:Clarinetists The term SOPRANO CLARINET is used occasionally to refer to those instruments from the clarinet family that occupy a higher position, both in pitch and in popularity than subsequent additions to the family such as the basset horns and bass clarinets. The B♭ clarinet is by far the most common type of clarinet and indeed the unmodified word "CLARINET " usually refers to this instrument
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Bass Clarinet
woodwind instrument * Wind * Woodwind * Single-reed HORNBOSTEL–SACHS CLASSIFICATION 422.211.2-71 (Single-reeded aerophone with keys) PLAYING RANGE RELATED INSTRUMENTS CLARINET FAMILY * Soprano clarinet * Basset clarinet * Basset horn * Alto clarinet * Contra-alto/contrabass clarinet MORE ARTICLES * Category:Clarinetists The BASS CLARINET is a musical instrument of the clarinet family. Like the more common soprano B♭ clarinet , it is usually pitched in B♭ (meaning it is a transposing instrument on which a written C sounds as B♭), but it plays notes an octave below the soprano B♭ clarinet. Bass clarinets in other keys, notably C and A, also exist, but are very rare (in contrast to the regular A clarinet, which is quite common in classical music)
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Bassoon
The BASSOON is a woodwind instrument in the double reed family that typically plays music written in the bass and tenor clefs , and occasionally the treble . Appearing in its modern form in the 19th century, the bassoon figures prominently in orchestral , concert band , and chamber music literature. The bassoon is a non-transposing instrument known for its distinctive tone colour, wide range, variety of character and agility. Listeners often compare its warm, dark, reedy timbre to that of a male baritone voice. Someone who plays the bassoon is called a bassoonist
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English Horn
The COR ANGLAIS (UK : /ˌkɔːr ˈɒŋɡleɪ/ , US : /ˌkɔːr ɑːŋˈɡleɪ/ or original French: ; plural : cors anglais) or ENGLISH HORN in North America, is a double-reed woodwind instrument in the oboe family. It is approximately one and a half times the length of an oboe. The cor anglais is a transposing instrument pitched in F , a perfect fifth lower than the oboe (a C instrument). This means that music for the cor anglais is written a perfect fifth higher than the instrument actually sounds. The fingering and playing technique used for the cor anglais are essentially the same as those of the oboe and oboists typically double on the cor anglais when required. The cor anglais normally lacks the lowest B♭ key found on most oboes and so its sounding range stretches from E3 (written B♮) below middle C to C6 two octaves above middle C
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Oboe
OBOES /ˈoʊboʊ/ OH-boh are a family of double reed woodwind instruments . The most common oboe plays in the treble or soprano range. Oboes are usually made of wood, but there are also oboes made of synthetic materials. A soprano oboe measures roughly 65 cm (25 1⁄2 in) long, with metal keys , a conical bore and a flared bell. Sound is produced by blowing into the reed and vibrating a column of air. The distinctive tone is versatile and has been described as "bright". When oboe is used alone, it is generally taken to mean the treble instrument rather than other instruments of the family, such as the cor anglais (English horn) or oboe d'amore. In English, prior to 1770, the standard instrument was called a "hautbois", "hoboy", or "French hoboy" (pronounced /ˈhoʊbɔɪ/ HOH-boy , borrowed from the French name, a compound word made of haut and bois ). The spelling of oboe was adopted into English c
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Claude Debussy
ACHILLE-CLAUDE DEBUSSY (French: , 22 August 1862 – 25 March 1918), known since the 1890s as CLAUDE-ACHILLE DEBUSSY or CLAUDE DEBUSSY, was a French composer . He and Maurice Ravel were the most prominent figures associated with Impressionist music , though Debussy disliked the term when applied to his compositions. He was made Chevalier of the Legion of Honour
Legion of Honour
in 1903. He was among the most influential composers of the late 19th and early 20th centuries, and his use of non-traditional scales and chromaticism influenced many composers who followed. Debussy's music is noted for its sensory content and frequent use of nontraditional tonalities. The prominent French literary style of his period was known as Symbolism , and this movement directly inspired Debussy both as a composer and as an active cultural participant
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Twelve-bar Blues
The TWELVE-BAR BLUES or blues changes is one of the most prominent chord progressions in popular music . The blues progression has a distinctive form in lyrics , phrase , chord structure, and duration . In its basic form, it is predominantly based on the I , IV , and V chords of a key. The blues can be played in any key . Mastery of the blues and rhythm changes are "critical elements for building a jazz repertoire". CONTENTS* 1 Structure * 1.1 Variations * 2 Lyrical patterns * 3 Examples of songs * 4 References * 5 Sources STRUCTURE The most common or standard twelve-bar blues progressions variations, in C. (Benward ">(help ·info ), B (help ·info ), C (help ·info ), D (help ·info ), and E (help ·info ) as boogie woogie basslines. For example, Robert Johnson 's " Sweet Home Chicago " (1936) uses A. In the key of C, one basic blues progression (E from above) is as follows
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Flute
The FLUTE is a family of musical instruments in the woodwind group. Unlike woodwind instruments with reeds , a flute is an aerophone or reedless wind instrument that produces its sound from the flow of air across an opening. According to the instrument classification of Hornbostel–Sachs , flutes are categorized as edge-blown aerophones . A musician who plays the flute can be referred to as a flute player, flautist, flutist or, less commonly, fluter or flutenist. Flutes are the earliest extant musical instruments , as paleolithic instruments with hand-bored holes have been found. A number of flutes dating to about 43,000 to 35,000 years ago have been found in the Swabian Jura region of present-day Germany
Germany
. These flutes demonstrate that a developed musical tradition existed from the earliest period of modern human presence in Europe
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Piccolo
The piccolo sounds one octave higher than written. Sounding: RELATED INSTRUMENTS * Flute * Alto flute * Bass flute The PICCOLO /ˈpɪkəloʊ/ (Italian pronunciation: ; Italian for "small", but named ottavino in Italy) is a half-size flute , and a member of the woodwind family of musical instruments. The modern piccolo has most of the same fingerings as its larger sibling, the standard transverse flute , but the sound it produces is an octave higher than written. This gave rise to the name ottavino (Italian for "little octave"), the name by which the instrument is referred to in the scores of Italian composers. Piccolos are now manufactured in the key of C or D♭. It was for this D♭ piccolo that John Philip Sousa wrote the famous solo in the final repeat of the closing section (trio) of his march "The Stars and Stripes Forever "
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French Horn
The FRENCH HORN (since the 1930s known simply as the "horn" in some professional music circles) is a brass instrument made of tubing wrapped into a coil with a flared bell. The DOUBLE HORN IN F/B♭ (technically a variety of German horn ) is the horn most often used by players in professional orchestras and bands. A musician who plays any kind of horn is generally referred to as a horn player (or less frequently, a hornist). Pitch is controlled through the combination of the following factors: speed of propulsion of air through the instrument (controlled by the player's lungs and thoracic diaphragm ); diameter and tension of lip aperture (controlled by the player's lip muscles—the embouchure ) in the mouthpiece; plus, in a modern French horn, the operation of valves by the left hand, which route the air into extra sections of tubing
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Trumpet
Brass
Brass
* Wind * Brass
Brass
* Aerophone HORNBOSTEL–SACHS CLASSIFICATION 423.233 (Valve
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Tom-tom Drum
A TOM-TOM DRUM (which is distinct from a tam-tam , a gong) is a cylindrical drum with no snares . The name came originally from the Anglo-Indian and Sinhala . The tom-tom drum was added to the drum kit in the early part of the 20th century. Most toms range in size between 6 and 20 inches (15 and 51 cm) in diameter, though floor toms can go as large as 24 inches (61 cm). CONTENTS * 1 Design history * 2 Modern tom-toms * 2.1 Classic rack tom setups * 3 Variations * 3.1 Single-headed tom-toms * 3.2 Rototoms * 3.3 Gong
Gong
bass drum * 3.4 Floor tom
Floor tom
* 4 Construction and manufacture * 4.1 Shell * 4.2 Hardware * 5 Sound * 6 References * 6.1 Notes DESIGN HISTORYThe first drum kit tom-toms had no rims; the heads were tacked to the shell
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Xylophone
The XYLOPHONE (from the Greek words ξύλον—xylon, "wood" + φωνή—phōnē, "sound, voice", meaning "wooden sound") is a musical instrument in the percussion family that consists of wooden bars struck by mallets . Each bar is an idiophone tuned to a pitch of a musical scale , whether pentatonic or heptatonic in the case of many African and Asian instruments, diatonic in many western children's instruments, or chromatic for orchestral use. The term xylophone may be used generally, to include all such instruments such as the marimba , balafon and even the semantron . However, in the orchestra , the term xylophone refers specifically to a chromatic instrument of somewhat higher pitch range and drier timbre than the marimba , and these two instruments should not be confused. The term is also popularly used to refer to similar instruments of the lithophone and metallophone types
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Glockenspiel
A GLOCKENSPIEL (German pronunciation: or , Glocken: bells and Spiel: play) is a percussion instrument composed of a set of tuned keys arranged in the fashion of the keyboard of a piano . In this way, it is similar to the xylophone ; however, the xylophone's bars are made of wood, while the glockenspiel's are metal plates or tubes, thus making it a metallophone . The glockenspiel, moreover, is usually smaller and higher in pitch . In German, a carillon is also called a Glockenspiel, while in French, the glockenspiel is often called a carillon. In music scores the glockenspiel is sometimes designated by the Italian term campanelli. CONTENTS * 1 Description * 2 Range * 3 Popularity * 4 Related instruments * 5 Bell lyre * 6 Gallery * 7 See also * 8 References * 9 External links DESCRIPTION A Mardi Gras
Mardi Gras
musician playing a glockenspiel
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