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4bit In computer architecture, 4bit 4bit integers, memory addresses, or other data units are those that are 4 bits wide. Also, 4bit 4bit CPU and ALU architectures are those that are based on registers, address buses, or data buses of that size. A group of four bits is also called a nibble and has 24 = 16 possible values. Some of the first microprocessors had a 4bit 4bit word length and were developed around 1970 [...More...]  "4bit" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Application Software An application program (app or application for short) is a computer program designed to perform a group of coordinated functions, tasks, or activities for the benefit of the user. Examples of an application include a word processor, a spreadsheet, an accounting application, a web browser, a media player, an aeronautical flight simulator, a console game or a photo editor [...More...]  "Application Software" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Integrated Circuit An integrated circuit or monolithic integrated circuit (also referred to as an IC, a chip, or a microchip) is a set of electronic circuits on one small flat piece (or "chip") of semiconductor material, normally silicon. The integration of large numbers of tiny transistors into a small chip results in circuits that are orders of magnitude smaller, cheaper, and faster than those constructed of discrete electronic components. The IC's mass production capability, reliability and buildingblock approach to circuit design has ensured the rapid adoption of standardized ICs in place of designs using discrete transistors. ICs are now used in virtually all electronic equipment and have revolutionized the world of electronics [...More...]  "Integrated Circuit" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Bus (computing) In computer architecture, a bus[1] (a contraction of the Latin omnibus) is a communication system that transfers data between components inside a computer, or between computers. This expression covers all related hardware components (wire, optical fiber, etc.) and software, including communication protocols.[2] Early computer buses were parallel electrical wires with multiple hardware connections, but the term is now used for any physical arrangement that provides the same logical function as a parallel electrical bus [...More...]  "Bus (computing)" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Address Bus An address bus is a computer bus (a series of lines connecting two or more devices) that is used to specify a physical address. When a processor or DMAenabled device needs to read or write to a memory location, it specifies that memory location on the address bus (the value to be read or written is sent on the data bus). The width of the address bus determines the amount of memory a system can address. For example, a system with a 32bit address bus can address 232 (4,294,967,296) memory locations. If each memory location holds one byte, the addressable memory space is 4 GB. Implementation[edit] Early processors used a wire for each bit of the address width [...More...]  "Address Bus" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Bit The bit (a portmanteau of binary digit)[1] is a basic unit of information used in computing and digital communications. A binary digit can have only one of two values, and may be physically represented with a twostate device. These state values are most commonly represented as either a 0or1. The two values of a binary digit can also be interpreted as logical values (true/false, yes/no), algebraic signs (+/−), activation states (on/off), or any other twovalued attribute. The correspondence between these values and the physical states of the underlying storage or device is a matter of convention, and different assignments may be used even within the same device or program [...More...]  "Bit" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Computer Architecture In computer engineering, computer architecture is a set of rules and methods that describe the functionality, organization, and implementation of computer systems [...More...]  "Computer Architecture" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Precision (computer Science) In computer science, the precision of a numerical quantity is a measure of the detail in which the quantity is expressed. This is usually measured in bits, but sometimes in decimal digits. It is related to precision in mathematics, which describes the number of digits that are used to express a value. Rounding error[edit] Further information: Floating point Precision is often the source of rounding errors in computation. The number of bits used to store a number will often cause some loss of accuracy. An example would be to store "sin(0.1)" in IEEE single precision floating point standard [...More...]  "Precision (computer Science)" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Decimal64 Floatingpoint Format In computing, decimal64 is a decimal floatingpoint computer numbering format that occupies 8 bytes (64 bits) in computer memory. It is intended for applications where it is necessary to emulate decimal rounding exactly, such as financial and tax computations. Decimal64 supports 16 decimal digits of significand and an exponent range of −383 to +384, i.e. ±0.000000000000000×10^−383 to ±9.999999999999999×10^384. (Equivalently, ±0000000000000000×10^−398 to ±9999999999999999×10^369.) In contrast, the corresponding binary format, which is the most commonly used type, has an approximate range of ±0.000000000000001×10^−308 to ±1.797693134862315×10^308 [...More...]  "Decimal64 Floatingpoint Format" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Halfprecision Floatingpoint Format In computing, half precision is a binary floatingpoint computer number format that occupies 16 bits (two bytes in modern computers) in computer memory. In IEEE 7542008 the 16bit base 2 format is officially referred to as binary16 [...More...]  "Halfprecision Floatingpoint Format" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Nibble In computing, a nibble (occasionally nybble or nyble to match the spelling of byte) is a fourbit aggregation,[1][2] or half an octet. It is also known as halfbyte[3] or tetrade.[4][5] In a networking or telecommunication context, the nibble is often called a semioctet,[6] quadbit,[7] or quartet.[8][9] A nibble has sixteen (24) possible values. A nibble can be represented by a single hexadecimal digit and called a hex digit.[10] A full byte (octet) is represented by two hexadecimal digits; therefore, it is common to display a byte of information as two nibbles. Sometimes the set of all 256 byte values is represented as a 16×16 table, which gives easily readable hexadecimal codes for each value. Fourbit computer architectures use groups of four bits as their fundamental unit. Such architectures were used in early microprocessors, pocket calculators and pocket computers [...More...]  "Nibble" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Memory Address In computing, a memory address is a reference to a specific memory location used at various levels by software and hardware [...More...]  "Memory Address" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

16bit Floatingpoint Format In computing, half precision is a binary floatingpoint computer number format that occupies 16 bits (two bytes in modern computers) in computer memory. In IEEE 7542008 the 16bit base 2 format is officially referred to as binary16 [...More...]  "16bit Floatingpoint Format" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Decimal32 Floatingpoint Format In computing, decimal32 is a decimal floatingpoint computer numbering format that occupies 4 bytes (32 bits) in computer memory. It is intended for applications where it is necessary to emulate decimal rounding exactly, such as financial and tax computations. Like the binary16 format, it is intended for memory saving storage. Decimal32 supports 7 decimal digits of significand and an exponent range of −95 to +96, i.e. ±0.000000×10^−95 to ±9.999999×10^96. (Equivalently, ±0000000×10^−101 to ±9999999×10^90.) Because the significand is not normalized (there is no implicit leading "1"), most values with less than 7 significant digits have multiple possible representations; 1×102=0.1×103=0.01×104, etc [...More...]  "Decimal32 Floatingpoint Format" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Decimal Floatingpoint Decimal Decimal floatingpoint (DFP) arithmetic refers to both a representation and operations on decimal floatingpoint numbers. Working directly with decimal (base10) fractions can avoid the rounding errors that otherwise typically occur when converting between decimal fractions (common in humanentered data, such as measurements or financial information) and binary (base2) fractions. The advantage of decimal floatingpoint representation over decimal fixedpoint and integer representation is that it supports a much wider range of values. For example, while a fixedpoint representation that allocates 8 decimal digits and 2 decimal places can represent the numbers 123456.78, 8765.43, 123.00, and so on, a floatingpoint representation with 8 decimal digits could also represent 1.2345678, 1234567.8, 0.000012345678, 12345678000000000, and so on [...More...]  "Decimal Floatingpoint" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

32bit Floatingpoint Format Singleprecision floatingpoint format Singleprecision floatingpoint format is a computer number format, usually occupying 32 bits 32 bits in computer memory; it represents a wide dynamic range of numeric values by using a floating radix point. A floating point variable can represent a wider range of numbers than a fixed point variable of the same bit width at the cost of precision. A signed 32bit 32bit integer variable has a maximum value of 231 − 1 = 2,147,483,647, whereas an IEEE 754 IEEE 754 32bit 32bit base2 floatingpoint variable has a maximum value of (2 − 2−23) × 2127 ≈ 3.402823 × 1038 [...More...]  "32bit Floatingpoint Format" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 