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4-4-6-4
A 4-4-6-4, in the Whyte notation
Whyte notation
for the classification of steam locomotives by wheel arrangement , is one that has four leading wheels followed by four coupled driving wheels , a second set of six coupled driving wheels and four trailing wheels . The Pennsylvania Railroad
Pennsylvania Railroad
's Q2 class were the only locomotives ever to use this arrangement. These were duplex locomotives , in which both sets of driving wheels were mounted in a common, rigid locomotive frame . This locomotive design was a further development of the highly successful 2-10-4
2-10-4
. The divided drive , or duplex arrangement, allowed for higher speeds with less damage to the track
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UIC Classification
The UIC CLASSIFICATION OF LOCOMOTIVE AXLE ARRANGEMENTS, also known as GERMAN CLASSIFICATION, describes the wheel arrangement of locomotives , multiple units and trams . It is set out in the International Union of Railways (UIC) "Leaflet 650 – Standard designation of axle arrangement on locomotives and multiple-unit sets". It is used in much of the world. The United Kingdom
United Kingdom
uses a related scheme. The United States
United States
uses the simplified AAR wheel arrangement for modern locomotives. It is a more versatile system than Whyte notation
Whyte notation
, making fewer assumptions about locomotive layout, and counting axles instead of wheels. Some locomotives are impossible to classify using Whyte notation, but UIC classification handles them easily. It is also much more suited to diesel and electric locomotives
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Divided Drive (locomotive)
A DIVIDED DRIVE LOCOMOTIVE is a steam locomotive that divides the driving force on its wheels by using different cylinders to power different pairs of driving wheels in order to give better weight distribution and reduce "hammer blow " which can be damaging to the track, or else to enable the wider spacing of the driving wheels to accommodate a larger firebox. CONTENTS* 1 Origins * 1.1 Anatole Mallet * 1.2 Francis Webb * 1.3 Alfred de Glehn * 2 Use in the UK * 3 Use in the USA * 4 References * 5 Sources ORIGINSANATOLE MALLETThe system of dividing drive was originally developed by Anatole Mallet in the 1870s on a number of rigid-wheelbase compound locomotives , and then during the 1880s, on Mallet articulated locomotives . FRANCIS WEBBMallet's ideas inspired Francis Webb in Britain who introduced 2-(2-2)-0 , 2-(2-2)-2 , 2-2-2-2T, 2-2-(4-0) T divided drive locomotives between 1882 and 1903
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German Classification
The UIC CLASSIFICATION OF LOCOMOTIVE AXLE ARRANGEMENTS, also known as GERMAN CLASSIFICATION, describes the wheel arrangement of locomotives , multiple units and trams . It is set out in the International Union of Railways (UIC) "Leaflet 650 – Standard designation of axle arrangement on locomotives and multiple-unit sets". It is used in much of the world. The United Kingdom
United Kingdom
uses a related scheme. The United States
United States
uses the simplified AAR wheel arrangement for modern locomotives. It is a more versatile system than Whyte notation
Whyte notation
, making fewer assumptions about locomotive layout, and counting axles instead of wheels. Some locomotives are impossible to classify using Whyte notation, but UIC classification handles them easily. It is also much more suited to diesel and electric locomotives
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Italian Classification
The UIC CLASSIFICATION OF LOCOMOTIVE AXLE ARRANGEMENTS, sometimes known as GERMAN CLASSIFICATION or GERMAN SYSTEM, describes the wheel arrangement of locomotives , multiple units and trams . It is set out in the International Union of Railways (UIC) "Leaflet 650 – Standard designation of axle arrangement on locomotives and multiple-unit sets". It is used in much of the world. The United Kingdom uses the Whyte notation
Whyte notation
. The United States
United States
uses the simplified AAR wheel arrangement for modern locomotives. CONTENTS * 1 Structure * 2 Examples * 3 United Kingdom
United Kingdom
* 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links STRUCTURE Upper-case letters The number of consecutive driving axles, starting at A for a single axle. C thus indicates three consecutive pairs of driving wheels
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Swiss Classification
For more than a century, the SWISS LOCOMOTIVE, MULTIPLE UNIT, MOTOR COACH AND RAILCAR CLASSIFICATION system, in either its original or updated forms, has been used to name and classify the rolling stock operated on the railways of Switzerland
Switzerland
. It started out as a uniform system for the classification and naming of all rolling stock, powered and unpowered, but had been replaced and amended by the UIC classification of goods wagons
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Turkish Classification
In the TURKISH CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM for railway locomotives, the number of powered axles are followed by the total number of axles. It is identical to the Swiss system except that the latter places a slash between the two numbers. Thus 0-6-0 becomes 33 4-6-2 becomes 36 2-6-4 becomes 36 2-8-0 becomes 45 SEE ALSO * UIC classification system This Turkey -related article is a stub . You can help by expanding it . * v * t * e This European rail transport related article is a stub . You can help by expanding it . * v * t * e This rail-transport related article is a stub . You can help by expanding it
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Locomotive Frame
A LOCOMOTIVE FRAME is the structure that forms the backbone of the railway locomotive , giving it strength and supporting the superstructure elements such as a cab , boiler or bodywork. The vast majority of locomotives have had a frame structure of some kind. The frame may in turn be supported by axles directly attached to it, or it may be mounted on bogies (UK ) / trucks (US ), or a combination of the two. The bogies in turn will have frames of their own. CONTENTS* 1 Types of frame * 1.1 Plate frames * 1.2 Bar frames * 1.3 Cast steel beds * 2 Articulated locomotives * 3 See also * 4 References TYPES OF FRAME Preserved GWR 9017 showing outside frames Three main types of frame on steam locomotives may be distinguished: PLATE FRAMESThese used steel plates about 1–2 in (25.4–50.8 mm) thick. They were mainly used in Britain and continental Europe
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French Classification
Under the FRENCH CLASSIFICATION system for locomotive wheel arrangements, the system is slightly different for steam and electric/diesel vehicles. CONTENTS* 1 Steam * 1.1 Examples * 2 Electric and diesel * 3 See also STEAMThe French system counts axles, rather than wheels. As with Whyte notation, a conventional rigid locomotive will have three digits corresponding to its axle configuration: The first digit is the number of leading unpowered axles; the second digit the number of powered axles; The third digit the number of trailing unpowered axles
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Driving Wheel
On a steam locomotive , a DRIVING WHEEL is a powered wheel which is driven by the locomotive 's pistons (or turbine , in the case of a steam turbine locomotive ). On a conventional, non-articulated locomotive, the driving wheels are all coupled together with side rods (also known as coupling rods ); normally one pair is directly driven by the main rod (or connecting rod ) which is connected to the end of the piston rod ; power is transmitted to the others through the side rods. On diesel and electric locomotives , the driving wheels may be directly driven by the traction motors . Coupling rods are not usually used, and it is quite common for each axle to have its own motor. Jackshaft drive and coupling rods were used in the past (e.g. in the Swiss Crocodile locomotive ) but their use is now confined to shunting locomotives . On an articulated locomotive or a duplex locomotive , driving wheels are grouped into sets which are linked together within the set
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Wheel Arrangement
In rail transport , a WHEEL ARRANGEMENT or WHEEL CONFIGURATION is a system of classifying the way in which wheels are distributed under a locomotive . Several notations exist to describe the wheel assemblies of a locomotive by type, position, and connections, with the adopted notations varying by country. Within a given country, different notations may also be employed for different kinds of locomotives, such as steam , electric , and diesel powered. Especially in steam days, wheel arrangement was an important attribute of a locomotive because there were many different types of layout adopted, each wheel being optimised for a different use (often with only some being actually "driven"). Modern diesel and electric locomotives are much more uniform, usually with all axles driven
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Trailing Wheel
On a steam locomotive , a TRAILING WHEEL or TRAILING AXLE is generally an unpowered wheel or axle (wheelset ) located behind the driving wheels. The axle of the trailing wheels is usually located in a trailing truck . On some large locomotives, a booster engine was mounted on the trailing truck to provide extra tractive effort when starting a heavy train and at low speeds on gradients. Trailing wheels were used in some early locomotives but fell out of favor for a time during the latter 19th century. As demand for more powerful locomotives increased, trailing wheels began to be used to support the crew cab and rear firebox area. Trailing wheels first appeared on American locomotives between 1890 and 1895, but their axle worked in rigid pedestals. It enabled boilers to be lowered, since the top of the main frames was dropped down behind the driving wheels and under the firebox
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Leading Wheel
The LEADING WHEEL or LEADING AXLE or PILOT WHEEL of a steam locomotive is an unpowered wheel or axle located in front of the driving wheels. The axle or axles of the leading wheels are normally located on a leading truck . Leading wheels are used to help the locomotive negotiate curves and to support the front portion of the boiler. Importantly, the leading bogie does not have simple rotational motion about a vertical pivot, as might first be thought. It must also be free to slip sideways to a small extent (otherwise the locomotive is unable to follow curves accurately – a point lost on the 19th century railway pioneers), and some kind of springing mechanism is normally included to control this movement and give a tendency to return to centre. The sliding bogie of this type was patented by William Adams in 1865. The first use of leading wheels is commonly attributed to John B. Jervis
John B

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Pennsylvania Railroad
The PENNSYLVANIA RAILROAD (reporting mark PRR) (or PENNSYLVANIA RAILROAD COMPANY and also known as the "PENNSY") was an American Class I railroad that was established in 1846 and was headquartered in Philadelphia
Philadelphia
, Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
. It was called the Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
Railroad because it was established in the state of Pennsylvania. The PRR was the largest railroad by traffic and revenue in the U.S. for the first half of the 20th century. Over the years, it acquired, merged with or owned part of at least 800 other rail lines and companies. At the end of 1925, it operated 10,515 miles of rail line; in the 1920s, it carried nearly three times the traffic as other railroads of comparable length, such as the Union Pacific or Atchison, Topeka "> Amtrak's "Pennsylvanian" operates daily runs between New York and Pittsburgh
Pittsburgh
over the former PRR Main Line
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4-4-2 (locomotive)
Under the Whyte notation
Whyte notation
for the classification of steam locomotives by wheel arrangement , 4-4-2 represents a configuration of four leading wheels on two axles, usually in a leading bogie with a single pivot point, four powered and coupled driving wheels on two axles, and two trailing wheels on one axle, usually in a trailing truck which supports part of the weight of the boiler and firebox and gives the class its main improvement over the 4-4-0
4-4-0
configuration. This wheel arrangement is commonly known as the ATLANTIC type, although it is also sometimes called a MILWAUKEE or 4-4-2 MILWAUKEE, after the Milwaukee Road which employed it in high speed passenger working
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4-4-4
Under the Whyte notation
Whyte notation
for the classification of steam locomotives , 4-4-4
4-4-4
represents the wheel arrangement of four leading wheels on two axles, four powered and coupled driving wheels on two axles, and four trailing wheels on two axles. In the United States, this arrangement was named the Reading type, since the Philadelphia and Reading Railroad was the first to use it. In Canada
Canada
, this type is known as the Jubilee
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